Archaeological Discoveries in South Iberia 2


Archaeologically valuable places in Andalusia from the beginning of
mankind until the time of Romans (Continuation)

by Karl Juergen Hepke

This report does not claim completeness. Here are mainly listed discoveries which are remarkable
with regard to the history of Atlantis II
(The text in brackets are remarks of TOLOS)
To part 1 you come by click at this line

A. The archaeological place El Aculadero near Puerto de Santa Maria from the younger Stone Age.
(Text after datas from the museum of Puerto, Translation TOLOS)

"This is the oldest place with worked stones that is known till now in Europe. The layer of worked stones appears in a layer of pebble of 30 cm thickness near the old bord of the sea. It was accumulated at the side of a hill in the time of younger Quartaer before one million of years. At that time prevailed in this region a much more warm and damp climate than now and the sea reached about 30 Km further into the country.( The plain near Puerto was at that time covered by the sea and the mountain range and the hill in front of it were islands in it ) The rudeness and ancientness of the tools show that the hominids (the human like beings ) who produced them must have been very primitive. The "homo habilis" is seen in connection with this kind of artefacts. The level of the layer of pebble that contains the tools is located under a layer of fossils, as shown in the museum. The layer of the tools contains no organic material.
The place of discovery is one of the most important for the knowledge of the younger Palaeolithicum . Its exact dating makes it possible to understand other places of finds in the neighbourhood , so that of Rota, Carmona and at the Hacienda San Martin in Puerto which belong to a similar layer of culture."

With this is said, that:
1. The country had already before one million of years a settlement of human like beings and belongs with that to the oldest known settlements on earth.
The sea reached 30 Km further into the country. That means that the level of the sea was much higher than now, possibly caused by the warmer climate or the land was lower than today.
This is also possible because Iberia belongs to a zone of raising.
With this it is possible, that also in the time of Atlantis II before 4000 years, the level of the sea was different from that of today, probably higher, what made the construction of canals open to the sea more easy.

B. Rests of the prehistoric settlement of Cantarranas (Puerto de Santa Maria) from the beginning Age of Copper (Chalcolithikum) ( about 3500 v. Chr.)
(Text after datas from the museum of Puerto, Translation TOLOS)

"This prehistoric settlement is one of the areas of the town in which we find for the first time signs of a lasting settling. It covers some 10 000 m2 where we find rests of huts and flats. In this area were also dug up subterranean buildings in form of a bell, which were used as storeroom. Sometimes they were used as place for burial of the dead. There were also found rests of buildings from air dried bricks and fire places with big quantities of archaeological material. There were knifes, handmade ceramic vases, teeth of sickles, arrowheads, thin plates in form of a trapez, pieces of flint sharpened at the end and a big amount of splinters of stone and bone, nodules and cores of flint which show that the inhabitants have worked out the stones to produce their daily tools."

The archaeological discoveries in the district of Puerto are showing that beside the solid buildings of stones at the tell of Dona Blanca already at 3500 B.C. existed a big settlement in the area of the town. In it were mainly used tools in the stile of the younger Neolithicum. their traces were not extinguished in later times because there were better tools made from metal. Because the tools made from metal had a big value of reuse you can nearly no traces find of them.

Interesting are the subterranean storerooms in form of a bell which are partly used as places of burials. They are remembering to similar underground buildings at Los Millares near Almeria in the East of Andalusia and also to the chambers of burial under the houses of Ugarit at the coast of Syria. Obviously liked the normal citizens of the Atlantian culture in the Mediterranean area, who could not reach the luxury of a grave worked out into the rock or a burial in an artificial hill, to have their dead near at them. So they could supply them with any burial object without having the risk of an early robbing of the grave because it was always under control.

In the following are shown photos of the excavation place at the Tell de la Dona Blanca near Puerto and the until 1998 published results of the digging up. For newer information look at Die Ausgrabung von Tartessos

The aerial photo shows the big hall in which the work of the archaeologists happens under convenient conditions. In the foreground you can see the already explored places. The size of the not worked hill shows, how much work is still to do.
( The photo was made about 1997 )

C. The Archaeological Place of Castillo de Dona Blanca
The Geographic Situation and the Nature of Terrain
(Text after datas from the museum of Puerto, Translation TOLOS)

The fortified place of Dona Blanca is situated at the foot of the little Sierra de San Cristobal in the area of Puerto de Santa Maria (Cadiz). In front of the complex is spreading out an extended plain of marches, bogs and saltworks, which is filled up in big parts by the river Guadalete. In its origin this plain was an extended bay in the ground of which was bed and shore area of the river. The Phoenician town was founded at this place in the 8th century B.C. very near to the mouth of the river into the bay with taking advantage of a natural inlet into the mountain slope which gave protection from the wind.

The place that was chosen for the foundation of the town was situated very convenient. It was open to the sea and lied very near to the courses of the rivers Guadalete and Guadalquivir, ways to penetrate into the interior to agricultural usable regions and to the mines. In the environment there were ample fresh water, quarries, extended forests and other useful.

The sight which gives currently the settlement is that of a table formed hill of nearly rectangular form and 6,5 ha size, that raises 31 m over the sea level. This appearance is the result of its history. It is an artificial created relief which came into being in the course of time by different layers of settlement, one over the other, and reaches at some places a thickness of nine meters over the initial ground.

The Chronological Development

The first human settlements at this place are coming from the late phase of the Copper Age at the end of the third millenium. This time is documented by foundations and prints of huts which lied isolated and adapted to the natural form of terrain.

In the following time there is a period of non-settlement of the place, which lasted until the first half of the 8th century B.C., the time in which was formed the first Phoenician setting up. A little bit later was built the first town wall. This settlement was inhabited in incessant following until the arrival of the Romans in the course of the second Punic war (206 B.C.). During these 600 years of Phoenician settlement were created two new fortifications ( in the 6th. and 3rd century) and carried out several structural alterations in the town area.

After the conquest by the Romans the area of Dona Blanca staid unsettled until the Middle Ages. Than it gives rests of islamic settlement between the 9th and 12th century A.C. Finally was constructed in the 15th century the tower or eremitage in form of a Greek cross in which settles the legend the captivity of Dona Blanca of Bourbon, wife of Peter the Cruel of Sevilla, until her murder.

The Town Area

The archaeological importance of the town has several aspects. In first sight it is its age. The bay of Cadiz is with it the first place of settlement of the Phoenicians at the peninsula in the 8th century B.C..
In second sight we have here a town which was settled in constant succession for 600 years. Therefore it is an intact town in archaeological sight.
Finally you find here the rests of a Phoenician settlement of biggest extension and best conservation in the old Phoenician style of urbanisation in the whole area of the central and western Mediterranean.
The rests of the buildings of living of the 8th century B.C. are situated outside of the first town wall, near to the harbour of commerce of the town. The houses are following each other side by side forming an artificial system of terraces. The houses have 3 or 4 rooms with pedestal of strong walls and superstructure of air dried bricks from clay, which were whitewashed. The soil is made from red stamped clay, which covers also the roof from vegetarian material. Most of them have their own oven for bread. You find fire places, benches at the walls and other elements of living. In principle this kind of furnishing is found in the rests of livings of the late epoch (3rd and 4th century B.C.) From this time were found also interesting details like a winepress, pillars and a perfectly marked street.

Principles of the construction of fortifications are also known. Already since the beginning this Phoenician town is fortified with a strong town wall with bastions. Over a platform of clay is a pedestal of strong stonework over that builds up the wall, formed by irregular stones of rock joined by clay. There are conserved rests till 4,8 m of height. Over this wall is constructed another more modern, but both are not everywhere corresponding in their location. In front of the wall is a V-formed archaic ditch, which is with a width of 8,5 m at its upper side worked out into the rock.

The photo from the
museum of Puerto shows selected pieces of ceramic found in the excavation.

This photo from the
museum of Puerto shows pieces of metal which were found in the excavation or in the town area of Puerto. Two pieces, coming from Egypt are pointing out more in the time before 1250 B.C. in which a active cultural exchange with Egypt happened.

The photo shows the uncovering of the top layer at the excavation.

The photo shows the work at a deep cut into the northern slope of the hill to check the number of layers which are to expect. Found were six layers from different times. Especially remarkable are the big stones in nearly the size of a man in the thick wall and its astonishing good state.

This photo shows the south west corner of the fortification wall in good quality. It is excavated to the foundation on the rock.

D. The Necropolis of the Sierra San Cristobal
(Text after datas from the
museum of Puerto, Translation TOLOS)

At the mountain slope of the Sierra de San Cristobal a necropolis is expanding over nearly 100 ha with a distribution to centers of the different epochs, which are reaching from the middle of the Bronze Age until the Turdetanian time. The form of tombs and the ritus of burial, which was found, is different. It reaches from graves formed into the rock or hipogaeans to these , which contain in artificial hills or tumuli rests of funerals.


Read to this in English: The History of Atlantis, the forgotten Origin of our Culture         By Karl Juergen Hepke

Or as a book in German language:


DIE GESCHICHTE VON ATLANTIS, der vergessene Ursprung unserer Kultur
by Karl Juergen Hepke
TRIGA-DER VERLAG 63584 Gruendau-Rothenbergen, Germany, 2nd Edition, Hardcover, 268 Pages, EUR 22,00, ISBN 978-3-89774-539-1 ,