Carthago und Etruria, last Countries of Atlantean Tradition
by Karl Juergen Hepke
The Etrusceans and
Carthageans, these two nations coming from the same roots -
The alliance between
Although the seafaring and commerce practising Phoeniceans as successors of Atlantis did not like warring from their nature, they had to build up a military power. They shew in that a personal effort and a hardness which amazed even the Greek. Because the Greek answered with same methods to the committed cruelties, arouse between both nations a murderous hate.
With the nearly simultaneous loss of the battle of
Himera in Sicilia and
At the same time collapsed also the empire of the
allied Etrusceans. Already since 510 B.C. they had lost control over
Only one generation had been sufficient to destroy the
big coalition, the head of which was Carthago. The real area of its rule was
although not concerned. Still the Greek did not risk to penetrate into the region
The quick insight in the danger and its hidden reasons and the instigation of wise defence reactions by the leading circles of Carthago, shew again their political astuteness and high intelligence. Not less considerable is the energy for the carrying out of plans and the hardness, with which were imposed and carried the necessary burdens.
As first consequence of the chain of defeats the existent powerful ruling dynasty of Magonids was removed and replaced by a tribunal of 100 judges elected from the senate. The most signifying persons of the dynasty were banished. The 100 were supported by committees of five members, coming from an additional selection. These committees got probably in the course of time a large part of the authorization of the general meeting.
The military leaders had to account to the tribunal after each war and several cases are known, in which military leaders fell in disgrace, because they were not successful in their actions. As further slashing measure can be regarded the evident introduction of import restrictions for Greek products. In the graves from the 5th and 6th century are nearly completely missing burial gifts of foreign origin.
The Carthagean government had obviously realized that the foreign trade took away from the country valuable raw materials and metals for import of objects of luxury without practical use. Therefore the trade relations were abruptly cut and only some Greek objects came into the country through the allied in Sicilia. Obviously wilful was also relinquished to mint own coins. So valuable metal was spared and additionally complicated the commerce with the Greek, for they insisted in payment in cash.
For ships brought not further cereals and oil, these had to be produced in the own country. The until than neglected hinterland became developed and the Lybians forced to pass over from extensive meadow economy to intensive farming of the soil. The ground for that had conquered the last representatives of the exiled dynasty of Magonids. It comprised probably the biggest part of Tunesia of today, at any rate were contained the peninsula of Cape Bon, the plains at the lower Medjerdal and the hilly country of Sahel, as the most fertile parts of the country.
There was lost no time to make them usable. Experienced Punic agronomists defined the methods of culture , best fitting to the soil. One of them, Magon, was even at Romans and Greeks respected as master of his stuff. His works were, as only Punic literature, translated into Latin.
Here was shown once more which knowledge the
descendants of Atlantis had still to their disposal. It enabled them to make a
"Garden Eden" out of a desolate stripe of steppe. This was later on,
after the conquest by the Romans, the granary of
When at the beginning of the 4th century B.C. the
warriors of Agathokles after their landing at
Hand in hand with the development of the hinterland
were made efforts for the widening of the colonial empire. There is agreement
in the dating of the most famous expedition to the 5th century. Himilkon got along the coasts of Iberia and
Gallia (D) at least to the
The most courageous and signifying expedition however
was made in southern direction. Herodot tells that under the pharaoh Nechao
(609/594) a Phoenicean expedition, supported by the pharaoh, sailed round the
In a further expedition, that took place nearly 450
B.C. the Carthageans tried to get back the former Atlantian branches of the
West. Their faraway aim was, however, the coast of
Already in the 6th century the Magonids had used extensively mercenaries in their campaign in Sicilia. Also the after them ruling oligarchy changed not this policy. They were carefully aware to treat the citizens of Phoenician origin most careful, because the Punic element of Carthago had no further increase by immigration. The subjugated, although courageous, but little civilized Lybians could only give aiding combat units, the loyalty of which was often not sure.
The heart of tactic of that time were the "Hoplites", heavy armed foot combat units, going in action in strict battle order. For this were primary suited professional soldiers. These could be recruited in good quality in the Mediterranean area, if one had money enough. So the efforts of Carthago strived for the creation of a treasure for war as big as possible, which could be used for payment of the army, for support of allied nations or for corruption of enemy´s politicians.
In 409 B.C. Carthago began to try to get free from the
Greek embrace. The region of war was in the beginning again Sicilia, where
Carthago had at first big success. Selinunt, Himera, and after them Agrigent
In the following generation Syrakus was beating back.
Agathokles of Syrakus landed 324 B.C. at
Such sacrifice of man was, although it belonged to the Atlantian and Kanaanitic tradition, practised only in the case of highest danger. Normally one was content with the sacrifice of animals. The resumption of man´s sacrifice in this time shows, that Carthago had the feeling of highest trouble and hoped to calm its gods by this slashing sacrifice and get help from them.
The Greek , who had once left the Atlantian tradition because of these cruel laws and were completely uncomprehending to them in that late time, regarded it as an act of barbarity and used it in propagandist manner to stir up opinion against the enemy.
The wall of intransigence and religious fanaticism, which had erected the oligarchy of Carthago against the Hellenism, crumbled gradually, also through these drastic measures, which had hit now also themselves. The military leaders began to fight against the oligarchy. There existed a plan to murder the whole senat on the occasion of a wedding. Also the exploited African ministates became increasingly restless and were waiting for an opportunity to strike against Carthago.
Nevertheless Carthago was not weakened in economic sight by this nearly hundred years lasting war. By the use of an army of mercenaries and the place of battle in Sicilia, the war was at first an economic problem. For this Carthago was prepared and had the possibility by exploitation of the hinterland and proceeds from the branches in the West to pay the costs of war. Besides, the war was itself lucrative. The plundering of all big towns of Sicilia, except Syrakus, had piled up in the treasure houses of Carthago the wealth, which found Scipio there one and a half century later.
But there were bad news from the East of the
Also the Etrusceans were now attacked again by
With that, also the last European country with Atlantian culture had fallen prey to the new states forcing to the front of power.
In the following time the new states made big efforts to remove the traces of the old empire of the Atlantians. For Greek and Roman their leftovers were obviously something odious and were therefore, where ever they were found, disposed by hard work and perseverance or taken out of circulation. Also the knowledge of the sea routes of the Atlantians got lost, because they themselves, as their successors the Carthageans and Phoeniceans, had done everything to keep this knowledge secret.
Nevertheless there must be found something by
intensive search after the knowledge of the Atlantians in the archives of the
Because the Atlantian empire and its religion and
culture, as the considerable technical, political and economic knowledge is
forming the foundation of the culture of the West of today, it should be a task
for its states to search for these origins.
Possibly we can replace the "ex oriente lux", "from East came the Light", which forms the historical thinking of the West until now, by "ex occidente lux", "the light came from the West."
Read to this in English: The History of Atlantis, the forgotten Origin of our Culture By Karl Juergen Hepke
Or as a book in German language:
GESCHICHTE VON ATLANTIS, der vergessene Ursprung unserer Kultur
by Karl Juergen Hepke
TRIGA-DER VERLAG, D 63584 Gruendau-Rothenbergen, Germany, 2nd Edition, Hardcover, 268 Pages, EUR 22,00, ISBN 978-3-89774-539-1 ,