Customs and Forms of Life in the Foundation State Atlantis
and its Successors (23,41)
by Karl Juergen Hepke
What we know about the political organisation, the laws, the customs and the form of life in the origin state of Atlantis, is nearly without exception handed down by Platon and Homer. Platon got his knowledge indirectly through Egypt and Homer based on old tales, which were told by the people since the time of the Achaeens. With that, one can name the sources correctly as poor and much more informative are therefore the reports from the states of succession, which passed through into historical times. Nevertheless that, what is known from the beginning, shall here been described once more.
The state of Atlantis had a structuring similar a confederation. It was ruled by ten kings, from which that, which resided in the initial seat, had the supremacy. Each king had an exactly defined area, in which he had absolute power. That means, that he could in his area punish or condemn to death whom he liked. The mutual rights of the kings and the common relationships were regulated by the god of foundation Poseidon and were written on a stele of gold-copper-ore, standing in the initial seat.
At this stele the kings met every five or six years to talk about common problems and discuss if one of them had violated the laws of Poseidon. With common resolution could be the punishment for it even the condemnation to death of the concerned king. Before the court sitting was hold a certain ritual, which should
help, to find a just verdict. For that in the holy district of Poseidon some bulls were set free and after a common prayer to Poseidon hunted by the ten kings, only armed with truncheons and loops, which was certainly not without danger.
Obviously Poseidon should get by this the opportunity to act by means of the bull directly against the king and carry out the judgement as almost "trial by ordeal".
Was the bull than caught, he was sacrificed at the stele so, that the blood flew over the text of the laws and a formula of vow, which cursed them, who did not keep these laws. The bull was than cut up and all his limbs consecrated and given to the fire.
Only ten drops of clotted blood, one for each king, were given in a filled jug. Than the stele was cleaned from blood. With golden dishes a donation was scooped from the jug by each king and poured into the fire, while the vow was renewed, to hold only court after the laws, written at the stele, to punish infringements of rights and to violate with intention none of the written points. Their rule should follow in future strictly the regulations of the progenitor.
After this vow, each king drunk himself and put than
the dish as sacrifice in the shrine of the god. After that, he went to the meal
and than to his urgent business.
When night arrived, all met again, dressed with wonderful dark blue robes, at the place of the fire of sacrifice, sat down on earth and after all other fires were extinguished and only the stars shined above them, they were judged ore judged themselves if one of them had made an infringement of right. When they had done their judgement, it was written, when day arrived, on a golden board and given to the temple with the robes.
Besides that, what was word-for-word told in the chapter " Platonīs report of Atlantis" , this is all, what we hear from Platon about customs and forms of life in Atlantis. This is understandable, for he could not speak from own experience or knowledge but had his knowledge only by reports from Egypt. The Egyptians themselves, whose order of the state was nearly the same as in Atlantis, thought it completely superfluous, to notice for them natural things of daily life on a stele.
To hear more about these things we must take a source, which is certainly not so vouched as the report of Platon. It is the description of "Scheria" in the "Odyssee" of Homer. Homer based in The "Odyssee", as in the "Ilias", the history of the Trojanic war, on old stories, which were still alive at Greek people from the time of the Achaeens. Although they were not written, because the art of writing had been lost in the meantime, they based directly on experiences with the life in Atlantis/Tharsis, which got the name "Scheria" at Homer. "Scheria" does not mean other than "market" in Phoenician language.
As we have seen in the proceeding, Tharsis was as the oldest town of the area then known, from tradition only called "The Port",or "The Town", or "The Market" for other comparable, with which it could be mixed up, was not existing in the time of beginning. This term staid by tradition when other towns and markets had grown up. But these were called by their name, to avoid mixing up.
Homer used the stories about the life in Tharsis as
scenery for the report about the stay of Odysseus in "Scheria" in the
country of the "Phaeaks". With that he gave to the old
"Phoenics" as called the Greek the Phoenicians, a from him invented
artificial name. After Homer the "Phaeaks" were people loving rowing,
famous in seafaring and had unusual maritime names as "Helmsman",
"Fast Sea", "Seacoast", "Pilot",
"Seaman". "Boatswain", "Empire Ship" and similar.
They used ships, that had usually no sails but 52 rowers and their ships were with that fast as "wings and thoughts".
To the port of Scheria they could come from East or West. This is natural for many ports at the coast. What is not natural is the remark, that the "Happy Phaeaks" lived far away from the "arduous living men" and had no neighbours. The women of the Phaeaks were "masters of weaving", which had obviously lasted to Phoenician times, as we will see later.
As also the Bible tells about Tharsis, the inhabitants were full of the joys of life and extraordinary hospitable.
After Homer they made an enormous reception for Odysseus. To honour him they organized banquets, sporting competitions and produced acrobatic dances. The idea, that anybody could come to them in enemy intention was completely strange to them, what sounds in the words of Homer like this:
There is not born
the man until now and may never live
who comes here into the land of Phaeak men, bringing hostility
For much beloved we are by the gods.
The kinds of sport shown to Odysseus are: Running, wrestling, long-jump, long-throw and boxing as kinds of sport also good for a fighter, what shows, that they were also practising for that.
For relaxation follows a comedy, also known in Greece, about the "adultery" of Aphrodite with Ares from whom she has already three children, although she is married to Hephaistos, the god of smiths. Hephaistos catches both in "full action" in a net and brings them so before the assembly of gods. Poseidon, who is at least the god of foundation of Tharsis-Scheria, persuades Hephaistos to let them free and only Ares is obliged to a repentance.
This shows the relative tolerant taking by the Scherians of offences, which are elsewhere punished with death or have the consequence of disbanding the marriage.
Odysseus is so pleased by the performance, that he praises loud the ability of the Phaeakeen artists, what pleases so again the king, that he lets hand over a sword as gift to the guest. While following the blind singer of the kings court is reporting after the wish of Odysseus about the life of the Achaeens, the Trojanic war and the sinking of Troja, Odysseus is spoiled at the guest meal. Finally the king asks him, to say his name. But when this happens, there is no visible negative reaction at the Phaeaks.
The king is only loosing himself in the profound contemplation, that the Phaeaks are predicted to sinking, because they treated and guided all strangers so friendly.
The following day, Odysseus has to wait till the beginning of the night for the departure of the ship, which shall bring him back to Ithaka. Odysseus sinks in deep sleep from which he awakes, when he finds himself at the beach of Ithaka. Obviously he was treated with a drink, causing a deep sleep, that he could not recognize the secret route which had taken the Phaeaks.
Here Homer points at the first time to the later by the Atlanteans and their successors the Phoenicians practised method of the strict secrecy of the routes to Atlantis and lets it finish later with the order of the king to guide never again strangers over the sea.
Atlantean Life , Customs and Religion in Canaan and Phoenicia (7)
The Canaaneens and later their Carthagean successors have saved, however open they were to any new, in religious things a distinct individuality, a curious archaic posture. How disconnecting and repulsive this worked to their environment, was in it a certain significance, an evidence, that in the bottom of their being were alive religious models, to which they remained fanatically faithful and for which they made until the end every effort, even the self-sacrifice.(7)
By digging up was uncovered a whole district of Ugarit, which shows the town in the last centuries of its existence from the 15th to the 12th century B.C..This was also the time of the highest extension of the Atlantean empire and therefore one can suppose that the architectural style of Ugarit represents also the Atlantean architecture of that time.
Ugarit had straight, rectangular crossing streets with stone houses combined in quarters and a temple for the old god of cereals , Dagon, as for his son Baal. Both erected in the beginning of the second millennium, the time of the Atlantean extension. There were palaces of the upper class with numerous rooms, with baths and hygienic equipment and mostly a top floor, in which were the real living rooms. A carefully made sewage system underneath the houses conducted the waste water out of the walls of the town. Each bigger building had a courtyard with an of stone built , roofed over well.
The noble genders had often really royally equipped family graves under their houses. A walkway lead down to these underground rooms, which with their construction from big slabs and ashlars remember strongly to Crete-Mycenic and Iberic-Atlantean buildings of graves, for example at Antequera in Andalusia. In the 17th and 18th century B.C. they were covered with wide slabs as in the dolmen graves of the old Atlantean time of about 2500 B.C.( Cueva de Menga at Antequera).
Later on they had fake vaults with a cover of big stones in new Atlantean style from the time about 1800 B.C. (Cueva de Romeral at Antequera)
The corps was, wrapped in mates and cloth, put on the soil. The hot, dry climate of Syria let quickly wither it. The chamber of the dead was densely separated from the living neighbour with walls.
Like in the shaft graves of Mycenes were given to the dead large quantities of valuable gifts , which should please him in the next world. Although most graves were robbed of their gold, silver and bronze objects, the ceramic, receptacles from faience and works from ivory had sometimes not wakened the interest of the plunderers and so the archaeological gain was still rich enough.
The big quantity of the Mycenic receptacles, the building of the graves and the whole form of the cult of the dead show , that the upper class of Ugarit in the 14th and 13th century was more orientated to Crete-Achaea or better Atlantis, that means to the West, than to Mesopotamia, that means to the East.
One of the most famous finds of Ugarit is the fine carved lid of a can from ivory. It shows in relief work the goddess of fertility of Crete with the characteristic decoration of the head, the wide shirt of splendour and naked bosom between two upright standing bucks to which she gives tufts of ears. Also a strange vase with a female face mask was dug up.
All this shows, that the strong contact of the Achaean with the Canaanean world was more a product of immigration of men from Atlantis, Crete or Achaea to Phoenicia than a settling of Phoenicians in Greece(7). That means , that contrary to the old understanding of history the direction of migration and culture was from West to East and not from East to West
That Canaan belonged long before Greece to the Atlantean area of culture are proving the cyclopean buildings with much more older date of origin. So were created the castles in cyclopean style of the Canaaneans one thousand years before the fortresses of the kings of Mycenes, Tyrins or Orchomenos.
The Phoenicians had as descendants of the Atlanteans always a special preference for buildings of megalithic or cyclopean style in which were often used gigantic blocks. This method of building one can find far into the first millennium B.C. in walls of ports, shrines and fortresses.(7)
This already long known fact lead to the wrong conclusion, that the megalithic method of building in Greece was imported from the East and this was continued in the supposition, that this was valid also for the whole culture. This was understandable for a time, in which the megalithic buildings of Iberia were not known or their age not identifiable, but can not be maintained today.
Under all witnesses of old Phoenician culture, given free from the soil of Ugarit are the for science most valuable, inconspicuous boards of tile, which were found in a building than called "library" . They are covered with engraved signs remembering to the Babylonian cuneiform script.
At first the writing of Ugarit seemed to be not legible, although one saw, that there was a kind of alphabet with only 20 to 30 signs. (7) In cooperation of German and French searchers of language they succeeded already in the thirties of the twentieth century in the far-reaching decoding of most texts. For the most part it was a writing that was than called "Old Canaanean" an ancient language from which had developed the Phoenician, Hebrew and Moabitic language. It is near to the old Arabian and Akkadic and was spoken initially in the South of Canaan.
With that the Canaaneans or perhaps however the Atlanteans can be taken for the inventors of the alphabetical script. One has discovered a number of steps of transition to the Phoenician alphabet in Canaan and in the 13th century was the invention of an alphabet of 22 consonants, the vowels were not written, long accomplished (7). In this time simple working men mastered this writing, which can be seen from the scribble at the wall of the shaft of the grave of king Ahran of Byblos.
The boards of Ugarit give apart from insights in the religion and the development of the alphabet of the Phoenicians, also a living impression of the cosmopolitan atmosphere of this town, which was the original type of a port of early Atlantean time. The writers of the "library" , which was possibly a kind of school, used often Canaanaean and Babylonian writing at the same board. There were also Sumeric-Akkadic lists of words among the boards.(7)
The texts of Ugarit have made rich the knowledge of the mental background of the Old-Canaanaean and with that of the Atlantean world. We know now from authentic old source and not only from the out second or third hand coming report of Platon, that priest kings ruled this early Atlantis , who praised, like the pharaohs, their divine origin and relished divine admiration.
When the king was taken ill, this signified disaster for the whole country. From the heir of the throne is said, that he was suckled at the breast of the goddess. As from god one expects kindness and justice from the king. He protects and preserves the widows and orphans, the poor and those of broken mind. Naturally the position of power is extended to his family, sitting in the key positions of the state and holding especially the important priesthoods.
The settled population was divided into classes which were probably hereditary: In priests, warriors, tradesman and so on. A well organized administration sorted the realization of the duties for the country and the rights of the citizens. The state paid in silver or articles. The charges were paid in silver, work or articles. The military power consisted of an army with foot soldiers and warriors on chariots and the navy. The soldiers had special rights and the veterans got land and means of existence.
Just as privileged was the class of priests and had an important role in military ventures. They should help to lead them after the will of god, which was opened to them in dreams, oracles and signs. The kind of war was in Atlantis as in Canaan and Egypt of "oriental cruelty". To identify the number of killed enemies heads, hands or other parts of the body were chopped down. Very usual was staking.(7)
All these marks of organization of a state are also known from Egypt, what once more and additionally proves, that Atlantis, Canaan and Egypt were equipped from the same, perhaps extraterrestrial source with the knowledge for foundation and maintenance of an at that time in duration working state. All new foundations of states, not respecting these "divine regulations", maybe by ignorance, maybe by supposed better knowledge had since that time only a short existence.
They perished, often after considerable initial success, mostly after decades, often after centuries by through human weakness caused inner conflicts or by at that based incompetence to fight sufficiently against enemies from outside. This is valid for the succession states of that time Greece and Rome and was than valid through all history until today.
Family life was in Phoenicia as in Egypt and at the Hebrews patriarchal. The man was head of the family and had several women, who had not the same status. The main heir had also among the descendants a privileged position and had an own title. The head of the family was not only master of children and women but also of his younger brothers.
The, in the library of Ugarit found legend of king Keret gives illustrative the idea of society of well turned out children. The good daughter fetches water, manages the stocks and has the gift of prophecy. The son has to carry out the religious ceremonies, at first for the dead, has to bring home cautiously the drunken father, keeps in order the house and washes the cloth.
In spite of their to the man subordinated position, widows could be the sole heir. The sons had to obey to them and they could even banish them. The slaves, the commerce of which was a flowering business of the Phoenicians, were an important part of the society. They had the possibility of buying their freedom.
From depictions from Egypt and the poetry of Homer we have a picture of the costume and the luxury of dress of the Phoenicians (7). And we can go out from the supposition, that this kind of dressing was also valid for other big towns of commerce in the Atlantean empire.
Whereas one wore in the land of Nile transparent, delicately pleated cloth of linen, the Canaaneans liked complicated and splendid cloth, as one can see later at Assyrian reliefs. Strong colours, heavy embroideries, borders and sashes marked their valuable robes. The famous colour of purple, which was more a deep violet than a red was varied in many steps unto a light pink and lilac. Striped pattern was especially popular. The embroideries from Sidon were highly estimated in the whole old world.(7)
Customs and Form of Life in Carthage (23)
Carthage as Atlantean state of the third generation had naturally a more heavy task as the states of the second step. The mental and creative potential of the early Atlanteans had levelled out as consequence of the spread over the whole Mediterranean area and the Near Orient as far as India and the with that mixing up with other nations.
New impulses came , owing to the for that inconvenient position at the North coast of the cultural differently orientated and with that for the new settlers "barbaric" Africa, not from the hinterland. And the influence, which came over the Mediterranean from the new states Greece and Rome were closed up by the internal archaic orientated Carthage, which felt in possession of higher values.
When in consequence of this art came not to a height and staid often at imitation of Phoenician, Egyptian and Achaean examples, the technology of building was nevertheless good.(23) One built in old Atlantean tradition with big blocks of sandstone or limestone which were often joined without mortar. The ceilings were formed with protruding blocks and cover of cedar wood. For quarrying of the blocks one bored, after exhaustion of the quarries at the peninsula, enormous tunnels into the limestone of Cape Bon.
From digging up we know, that the political drastic change after the big loss in the sea battles of Salamis and Eurymedon against the Greek was also accompanied in religious things by a drastic reform. At the position of the old God Baal came now as first in status the Goddess Tanit "Face of Baal" and as second the "Master of Heaven" Baal Hammon.(23) Tanit became in the course of time the patron God and real queen of the town. The term "Face of Baal", given to the Goddess shows that she was initially regarded as his female manifestation, as a kind of mirage of the God.(23)
It can be, that facing the fact, that Carthage was founded by a woman, namely Dido, and at the other side the most dangerous enemy of Carthage, Athens, used with big success the patron goddess "Athene" as motivation of its warriors, the appearance of a Goddess seemed to be more suitable, to motivate the warriors to biggest effort.
Abuse of the Divine Orders in the first Countries of Culture
by Karl Juergen Hepke
The from "Gods" received orders for the relations of men among themselves and to the gods were interpreted by the priests increasingly in sometimes very human sense especially when the handing over of the orders laid far ago. Than plaid often a deciding roll the from the evolution of men on earth coming interests like power, profile seeking and also human desires, for example of erotic type.
The divine orders had in the point of sexual relations
among men allowed a big liberty, for this area was not theirs and they
themselves, after the mythical tradition of all countries of culture as far as
Greece and Rome, delighted themselves in their human incarnations with this
special quality of earth.
It was absolutely far away from them, to issue any restrictions at this area. In contrary, they were very
which were to do at earth could be done increasingly by them.
In this sense must be seen also the order of Ishtar,
that every woman obliged to give herself to a strange man at least one time in
her life, better more often, as a sacrifice to Ishtar. This order should,
besides its men joining character, prevent, that women, out of however what
reason, were released from the duty to take care for the development and
continued existence of mankind by their descendants. This was a point where met
divine interests and human tendencies, based on the earth-bound origin of men.
And so was acted for a long time in this divine and also human wish with big
naturalness and widespread satisfaction. The temple of Ishtar was in all towns
one of the biggest and most frequented.
This was naturally also in the sense of the priests of Ishtar, who were initially only women. But obviously reached also men, at least in some towns of Phoenicia, to provide a part of the priesthood and with that began the problem, which in the eyes of outsiders the whole arrangement put into question. After their opinion this injured the honour of women.
So is known from the bible an intensive polemic against the customs of Canaan and also the conditions in Babylon, which is called "whore" are again and again sharply condemned. With that it was very near, to attribute the sinking of Tharsis/Atlantis to a punishment by God for the, in the view of the strict teachers of the Hebrews, rambling sexual life in the towns of the Atlantean empire.